Folliculogenesis and oogenesis are important events preceding the release of the mature oocyte (ovulation), as well as for in vitro oocyte maturation, which is. Drosophila oogenesis is an excellent system for the study of developmental cell biology. Active areas of research include stem cell. Spermatogenesis and Oogenesis. Pgs. (Campbell). Spermatogenesis. Production of sperm. Continuous and prolific; Each ejaculation.
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Oviduct contraction in Drosophila is modulated by a neural network that is both, octopaminergic and glutamatergic. Drosophila filamin encoded by the cheerio locus is a component of ovarian ring canals. J Embryol Exp Morphol.
A protein trap strategy to detect GFP-tagged proteins expressed from their endogenous loci in Drosophila. Wilder EL, Perrimon N. Mitotic divisions cease at the end of stage six, ooenesis by three endoreplication cycles during stages 7—10A [ 14 ].
Methods for studying oogenesis
The greatest strength of Drosophila as an experimental system is the ability to use genetic analysis to understand cellular and developmental processes. During these stages, several key patterning molecules are localized within the oocyte: The most efficient method to identify germline clones for later-staged egg chambers is the FLP-DFS technique [ 63 — 65 ].
This research takes advantage of powerful genetic and cytological tools developed over many years. Incomplete cytokinesis in these divisions leaves intercellular bridges that are later stabilized by the accumulation of filamentous actin to form ring canals that persist until the end of oogenesis.
Two groups of 65—80 follicle cells in the anterior, dorsal domain form specialized eggshell structures called dorsal appendages that facilitate gas exchange during embryogenesis. Oogenesix TB, Perrimon N. Characterization and relationship of Dpp receptors encoded by the saxophone and thick veins genes in Drosophila.
Tools for neuroanatomy and neurogenetics in Drosophila. Visualizing the F-actin distribution in fixed ovaries is best accomplished using fluorescently labeled phalloidin following fixation with formaldehyde [ 87 ].
Methods for studying oogenesis
Curr Opin Genet Dev. Mosaic analysis While female-sterile screens succeeded in isolating many genes that are critical for female fertility, the majority of genes that function in oogenesis are essential genes for oogrnesis loss of function mutations do not produce a female-sterile phenotype. An overview jurnao oogenesis and examples of how its study has contributed to our understanding of developmental biology are summarized in this section.
Many of these lines are derived from Gal4 enhancer trap screens aimed at identifying lines expressed in during oogenesis and early jurnak [ 4041 ].
The osmolarity of adult Drosophila hemolymph and its effect on oocyte-nurse cell electrical polarity. In fixed ovaries, RNA localization and abundance can be assessed using colorimetric RNA in situ hybridization [ ].
Identification and analysis of mutations in bob, Doa and eight new genes required for oocyte specification and development in Drosophila melanogaster. Flow cytometry The analysis specific cell populations isolated from ovaries is greatly aided by the ability to dissociate ovarian cells and perform fluorescence-activated cell sorting FACS.
Hudson jurnxl and Lynn Cooley 1, 2, 3. Reversible response of protein localization and microtubule organization to nutrient stress during Drosophila early oogenesis. On in primordial germ cells, on in germarium, low in early stages, then high in late stages. Global tissue revolutions in a morphogenetic movement controlling elongation. Kirilly D, Xie T.
Imaging The cells that make up the ovary are remarkable from a cell biological perspective. This task therefore requires substantial effort, and several large-scale of this type were conducted in s and s.
The FLP recombinase of yeast catalyzes site-specific recombination in the Drosophila genome.
Finally, a heat fixation protocol first developed for Drosophila embryos [ 96 ] can be employed and has been used as a fixative for adherens junction components in ovaries [ 97 ]. Humana Press Inc; Active areas of research include stem cell maintenance, gamete development, pattern formation, cytoskeletal regulation, intercellular communication, intercellular transport, cell polarity, cell migration, cell death, morphogenesis, cell cycle control, and many more.
Drosophila oogenesis is an excellent system oigenesis the study of developmental cell biology. We present here the basis for classical genetic approaches, and also summarize more recently developed techniques that rely on transgenic manipulations.
Gal4 expression from the nanos oogenesks is in germline stem cells, then recedes in young egg chambers and resumes later in oogenesis. A multitude of Gal4 lines is available from stock centers and labs that are useful for driving expression in specific cells of the ovary.
During egg chamber apoptosis, follicle cells lose their epithelial organization and become phagocytic, engulfing the cytoplasm of germline cells [ 22 oogeneeis, 23 ].
Effective RNAi silencing in the germline enabled a large-scale screen for genes involved in ovarian stem cell regulation [ 81 ]. Illuminating the role of caspases during Drosophila oogenesis.
Technau G, Campos-Ortega J.
In adults, moderate and uniform expression throughout oogenesis. By definition, female-sterile mutations cause a defect during oogenesis such that normal eggs are not produced. Quantifying the Gurken morphogen gradient in Drosophila oogenesis. Follicle stem cells and germarium follicle cells. Epigenetic stability increases extensively during Drosophila follicle stem cell differentiation.