This page contains the US Army Field Manual on Pathfinder Operations. FM In daylight operations, pathfinders are not inserted into an LZ before the initial assault echelon unless the LZ requires extensive improvement or. HEADQUARTERS. FIELD MANUAL. DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY. No. (FM ). PATHFINDER OPERATIONS. OCTOBER
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When only single aircraft LZs are available, in-flight spacing between helicopters is increased; this places an additional load on each crew.
Pathfinder Operations FM 57 38
When they are clear, the signalman signals the aircraft upward slowly so that the sling legs gradually take up the load. Extreme cold and blowing snow pose special problems in ground operations and flight conditions. Air Control Points Section V. In most combat situations, the need for security prohibits the use of red lights to mark the tops of trees on the departure end of a landing zone.
FM – Pathfinder Operations –
However, a running-type lift-off may not be possible in the jungle due to the size of the site, soft terrain, and obstacles. A decision is made on the exact manner in which the equipment is to be transported into the objective area.
A four-leg sling assembly with each leg lifting at an angle of 45 degrees will be used to lift 10, pounds of weight.
Running-type landings should be used when possible to minimize sand intake. Unfortunately, visual aids are visible, so the enemy can also see them. In desert operations, the radio is usually the prime means of communication. The requirements for establishing a landing site or zone are similar.
(e Book – English – Military) US Army – Field Manual FM 3 21 38 – Pathfinder Operations Oct2002
Because of the amount of vital information exchanged, aircraft crews normally record the important portions of GTA messages to ensure that instmctions are understood and followed.
Exercise particular care during hookup operations if the crew must mount the load to affect hookup. Estimation of Drop Zone Time Requirement The larger the formation, the more important this becomes.
Visual assembly oeprations include– a Day. At these times, the pilot must concentrate on flying the aircraft. Pathfinders prepare equipment in the following order, from the most to the least important: Prepare LZs and DZs.
The site commander must also ensure that landing instructions are compiled for transmittal to inbound helicopters, and that obstacles in or around the site are removed or marked.
Thoroughly inspect them for rust, stripped threads on the nuts or bolts, burrs, cracks, bent or twisted metal, or oil. In fact, the capacity of the cargo hook assembly usually exceeds the ACL. The pathfinder ensures that all pathfinder activities are coordinated with all agencies or units involved and that information is disseminated to all pathfinders involved in the operation.
The climatic conditions in the desert will have fk profound impact on establishing and operating landing sites.
If dm filter is not available, paint the lens cover or cover it with plastic tape to reduce pathfimder intensity. Unless the proposed landing site is secured and has been surveyed by either air or ground reconnaissance, its suitability to provide an adequate number of landing points or an assembly area for the ground unit is questionable. When the threat limits flight altitudes to the least possible clearances, pilots can fly as low as 50 to feet above the ground, regardless of terrain.
Pathfinder Operations FM 57 38 : Free Download, Borrow, and Streaming : Internet Archive
On an approach to a jungle landing site, the pilot avoids using a high rate of descent. He may transmit a message immediately after call-up without waiting for aircraft reply when it is short and receipt is ensured. Extension of the traffic pattern is limited to three legs: A traffic pattern normally extends out 1 mile from the pathfindsr approach of the landing area in all directions, depending on the type of aircraft or size of the facility.
They shine their headlights so that their beams intersect at the center of the landing point Figurepage When possible, to keep informed about changing situations that could influence their operations, pathfinders monitor supported unit command radio nets. The following information should be determined during the reconnaissance and selection of a mountain site.
These navigation aids vary in number and type depending upon aviation unit SOPs and requirements, and the need for security. In daylight hours, the touchdown points are marked sandbags painted a bright color or other expedient method. Determination of Release Point Location Mountainous terrain often limits or restricts communications.
This charge may cause severe electrical bum or injury.