GERÊNCIA DE VIGILÂNCIA DE ZOONOSES E ENTOMOLOGIA. GUIA DE Entomologia Agrícola – estuda e procura mecanismos de controle para os insetos. Engenharia Agrícola na UFCG. Sobre: Livro que trata de aspectos gerais da Entomologia. Arquivado no curso de Engenharia Agrícola na UFCG. Download. Gynandromorphism in the polyembryonic encyrtid Pentalitomastix plethoricus Cali. (Hymenoptera, Encyrtidae). Bollettino del Laboratorio di Entomologia Agraria.
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The traditional view, proposedb y Martynovist hat, shortlya fter the separation of ancestral Neoptera from Paleoptera, three lines of Neoptera became distinct from each other Table 2.
Though most diaphanopterodeans were plant-juice feeders, Kukalova-Peck and Brauckmann observed that some Permian species were remarkably mosquitolikea nd speculated that these may have fed on blood. Paleodictyopteraformedthelargestorderofpaleodictyopteroids and included some very large species with wingspans up to 56 cm.
Unfortunately, complicating this important tool has been a tendency for authors to use different terminologies when describing thev eins and wing areas of different groups ofi nsects, an aspect that is dealtw ith more fully inC hapter 3 Section 4.
Apostila Entomologia resumida
In his scheme Figure 2. With kind permission of Kluwer Academic Publishers and the authors.
The mandibles are not only dicondylic Chapter 3, Section 3. All paleodictyopteroids Upper Carboniferous- Permian had a hypognathous head with piercing-sucking mouthparts Figure 2.
For example, Eugereon, aL ower Permian fossil with sucking mouthparts, was placedi nt heo rder Protohemiptera. T his conclusion agrees with am olecular clock study indicating that insects arose int he EarlyS ilurian about million years agowith entomologua forms present by about million years ago Gaunt and Miles, To aid subsequent discussion of the evolutionary relationships within the Pterygota, the various orders referred to in the text are listed in Table 2. Martins, Damasceno, Awada – Pronto-socorro Pronto-socorro: It is now realised that this insect is a member of the order Paleodictyoptera and is not related to the modern order Hemiptera as was originally concluded.
Arquivos Semelhantes Aspectos gerais sobre siderurgia Aspectos gerais sobre siderurgia, aula 2. Tags Gillot Insetos Entomologia. By the Upper Carboniferous period, when conditions became suitable for fossilization, almost a dozen paleopteran and neopteran orders had evolved. Two major schools of thought exist with regard to the origin and relationships of these evolutionary lines.
The group includes two ordersProtodonata Meganisoptera UpperCarboniferous-Triassic andOdonata Triassic- Recent that are evidently closely related, some authorities even including the former in the latter order. The nature of their mouthparts suggests that nymphs were probably predators, some perhaps feeding on amphibian tadpoles Kukalova-Peck, Figure 2.
With further work, some of these will undoubtedly require splitting i. Aspectos do Neoconstitucionalismo Aspectos do Neoconstitucionalismo Material cedido pelo professor Jaciratan. BythePermianperiod,fromwhichmanymorefossilsareavailable,almostallofthemodern orders had been established.
Kukalova,Revisional study of the order Paleodictyoptera in the Upper Carboniferous shales of Commentry, France. Equally, molecular studies may give spurious results if the samples ize is too small.
Aspectos Ambientais Aspectos Ambientais. There are some 25—30 orders of living pterygote insects and about 10 containing only fossil forms, the number varying according to the authority consulted.
Entomology Gillott, Bruno row Enviado por: These generally small predators already bore a strong resemblance to the extant Zygoptera and Anisoptera both in form and habits Figure 2. Withk indp ermission of Kluwer AcademicP ublishers and the authors. Most authors, especially paleontologists, consider theP aleoptera to be monophyletica nd thes ister group to the Neoptera, andl ist a number of apomorphies in support of thisv iew Kukalova-Peck, Further, a recent studyo f 18S and 28S rDNA sequences from almost 30 species of Odonata, Ephemeroptera, and neopterans has provided strong support for the monophyly of the Paleoptera Hovmoller et al.
The early odonatoids differed from Ephemeroptera in features of their venation andi n having nymphst hat lacked abdominal gill plates, using instead the rectal branchial chamber for gas exchange Chapter 15, Section 4.
The Permothemistida [formerly the Archodonata and included in the Paleodictyoptera by Carpenter ] were a small group, characterizedb y having greatlyr educed or no metathoracicw ings, short mouthparts, and unique wing venation Figure 2. Carpenter recommended that at least the fore andh ind wings, head,a nd mouthparts should be known before a specimen is assigned to an order.
Some very large forms evolved, for example, Bojophlebia prokopi with a wingspan of 45 cm. Paleodictyoptera ;a nd B Permothemis sp. Phylogenetic Relationships of the Pterygota There are some 25—30 orders of living pterygote insects and about 10 containing only fossil forms, the number varying according to the authority consulted. It has generally been assumed that the Paleoptera and Neoptera had a common ancestor [inthehypotheticalorderProtoptera Sharov, ]intheMiddleDevonian,althoughthere isn o fossil record of such an ancestor.
Increasingly, morphological data and molecular information are being combined in massive cladistical analyses in an effort to resolve some long-standing arguments. Part I, Psyche 7: Meganeuropsis permiana with a cm wingspan.
Entomology (Gillott, 2005)
For example, Wheeler et al. Carpenter published an authoritative account of the fossil Insecta in which he recognized nine orders of fossil pterygotes.
Adults of early Ephemeroptera Upper Carboniferous-Recent including the Protoephemeroptera, formerly separatedb ecause of theirt wop airs ofi dentical wings differedf rom extant forms in having functional mouthparts.
TheearlyfossilrecordforNeoptera is poor, but from the great diversity of fossil forms discovered in Permian strata it appears thatthemajorevolutionarylineshadbecomeestablishedbytheUpperCarboniferousperiod.
Livro – ENTOMOLOGIA AGRÍCOLA _Jonathans –
Rossfrom studies of body structure, and Hamiltonwho examined the wing venation of aw ide range of extant species as well as that off ossil forms, concluded that there are two primary evolutionaryl ines withint he Neoptera, theP liconeoptera and. It is now appreciated that these fossils are paleopteran insects, most of whichb elong to theo rder Megasecoptera Hamilton, Based on his studies of fossil wing venation Martynov arranged the Neoptera in three groups, Polyneoptera plecopteroid, orthopteroid, and blattoid ordersParaneoptera hemipteroid ordersand Oligoneoptera endopterygotes.
Only recently have protodonate juveniles been discovered Kukalova-Peck, ; these had a mask similar to that of odonate larvae see Figures 2.
In contrast to theP aleoptera, which were inhabitants of open spaces, the Neoptera evolved toward a life among overgrown vegetation where thea bility to fold thew ings over thebackwhennotinusewouldbegreatlyadvantageous. Even so, none of these approaches is entirely satisfactory. Megasecoptera had severalf eatures in common with Diaphanopterodea, though these were likely the result of convergence.
As noted earlier, the Diaphanopterodea, which may be the sister group of Paleodictyoptera, were unique among Paleoptera in that they were able to fold their wings. This view is supported by Wheeler et al.